Some cooking equivalents and measurements from a friend in the UK.......
1 teaspoon 5 ml
60 drops 1 ts
1 tablespoon 15 ml 3 teaspoons 1 tb
16 tablespoons 1 c
1 cup 237 ml
2 cups 1 pt
1 pint 473 ml
4 cups 1 qt
1 quart 946 ml
2 pints 1 qt
4 quarts 1 ga
8 quarts 1 peck
1 gallon 3.78 litres (or 3785 ml)
1 fluid ounce 30 cc -- 2 tb
1 cup 240 ml
1 1/2 fluid ounces 1 jigger -- 3 tb
1/8 liter 6 2/3 tablespoons
1 ounce 28.4 gm
1 pound 454 g
1 pound 16 oz
1 kilogram 2.21 lb -- 35.3 oz
1 gram 0.035 oz
3 1/2 cups 1 lb Sugar -- brown
2 1/4 cups 1 lb Sugar
2 1/4 cups 1 lb Caster/superfine sugar
3 3/4 cups 1 lb icing/powdered sugar
2 cups 1 lb butter -- or any fat
4 1/2 cups 1 lb cheese -- grated
3 cups 1 lb flour
2 cups 10 oz flour
3 1/3 cups 1 lb whole wheat flour
3 1/4 cups 1 lb corn meal
3 cups 1 lb raisins
2 2/3 cups 1 lb dates -- pitted
3 1/2 cups 1 lb dates -- unpitted
4 cups 1 lb Nuts (chopped)
2 tablespoons Cocoa = 1 chocolate square
4 cups 1 lb Onions
1 cup Uncooked macaroni = 2-2/3 --c cooked
1 cup Uncooked rice = 3c cooked
1 pound Rice; 2 c raw -- 6 c cooked
1 cup Uncooked spaghetti=2c cooked
1 1/2 cups #1 can
2 cups #1 tall can 2 1/2 cups #2 can
3 1/2 cups #2-1/2 can
4 cups #3 can
13 cups #10 can
1 1/4 cups Picnic can
1 3/4 cups #300 can
2 cups #303 can
1 pinch = less than 1/8 tsp.
1 dash = 3 drops to 1/2 tsp.
3 tsp = 1 TBSP = 1/2 oz.
2 TBSP = 1 oz.
1 cup = 250 mls
1 tablespoon = 20 mls
1 teaspoon = 5 mls
1 pound (US) = 454 grams = 16 oz.
1 kg = 2.2 lbs.
General Conversion Tables
standard cup | tablespoon | teaspoon
Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
Australia 250ml 20ml 5ml
New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
UK 250ml 15ml 5ml
1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
1 pound = 454 g= 16 oz.
1 kg = 2.2 pounds
US Liquid Measurements
1 liter = 1.057 quarts
1 quart = 0.95 liter
1 gallon= 3.8 liters
1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
1/3 " = 0.8 dl
1/2 " = 1.2 dl
2/3 " = 1.6 dl
3/4 " = 1.75 dl
7/8 " = 2.1 dl
1 cup = 2.4 dl
1 dl = 2/5 cup = 6 to 7 tablespoons
A "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is 1/2 cup US.
Each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in US recipes weighs about 50 g.
There are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter
Substitutions and Equivalents:
US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-pupose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.
Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt for each cup of flour.
US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.
Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic ingredients to work.
Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.
1 pkg. of active dry yeast = 7 grams = 1/4 oz. = 1 cube compressed yeast
Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are thick and a weird color... but are not the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup granulated sugar.
UK corn flour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.
Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or corn flour! What one can buy labelled `polenta' really looks no different to cornmeal though. Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.
If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount of all-purpose flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.
Sugar and other sweeteners
UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar. There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the same as UK castor/caster sugar.
Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa. As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.
Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden) syrup can be substituted. Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light.
Light corn syrup is just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. A common US brand is Karo.
Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown byproduct of cane sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight acidic, metallic component. If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2 parts sugar, 1 part water.
Shortening is solid, white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil. (A popular brand name is Crisco, and many people call all shortening Crisco.) It is common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and left to set.
Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it makes very flaky pastry.
Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil. Corn and peanut oils are both good.
If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.
US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also called bittersweet).
What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate"; by some folks is the US dark or UK plain.
"Bitter chocolat" is, apparently, the UK term for high quality plain chocolate. Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark," "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be minor variations on a theme.
Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates, because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.
If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of vinegar or lemonjuice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.
4 oz. plain/strong/sifted = 1 Cup all-purpose/self-raising/unbleached = 5 oz. unbleached white
6 oz. wholemeal/stoneground = 1 Cup whole wheat
4 1/2 oz. cornflour = 1 Cup cornstarch
6 oz. yellow corn meal/polenta = 1 Cup coarse corn meal/polenta
6 oz. rye flour = 1 Cup
7 oz. pearl barley =1 Cup
7 oz. rice/bulgar wheat/millet/wheat = 1 Cup
6 oz. semolina/ground rice/tapioca = 1 Cup2 oz. fresh soft breadcrumbs = 1 Cup fresh soft breadcrumbs
4 oz. dried breadcrumbs = 1 Cup
3 1/2 oz. porridge oats = 1 Cup rolled oats
8 oz. light/dark soft brown sugar = 1 Cup (firmly packed)
1/2 oz. castor/caster/granulated sugar = 1 tbsp granulated sugar
4 1/2 oz. icing sugar = 1 Cup sifted confectioners' sugar
Fats and cheeses:
1 oz. butter, margarine, cooking fat, lard, dripping = 2 Tbsp. butter, shortening, lard, drippings
8 oz. butter, margarine, cooking fat, lard, dripping = 1 Cup butter, shortening, lard, drippings
4 oz. grated cheese - cheddar type = 1 Cup
1 lb grated cheese - cheddar type = 4 - 5 cups (packed)
Vegetables and fruit:
1 small to med. onion = 1 Cup
4 oz. shelled peas = 3/4 Cup
4 oz. cooked sweet corn = 1 Cup
4 sticks celery = 1 Cup chopped7 oz. chopped tomatoes = 1 Cup
3-4 oz. button mushrooms = 1 Cup
2 oz. chopped pickled beetroot = 1/3 Cup
4 oz. black/redcurrants/bilberries = 1 Cup
5 oz. raspberries/strawberries = 1 Cup
3 1/2 oz. dried beans = 1/2 Cup
Dried fruit and nuts, etc:
5-6 oz. currants/sultanas/raisins,chopped candied peel = 1 Cup
2 oz. currants/sultanas/raisins,chopped candied peel = 1/3 Cup
8 oz. glace cherries = 1 Cup candied cherries
3 1/2 oz. sesame seeds = 3/4 Cup
5 oz. whole shelled almonds = 1 Cup
4 oz. ground almonds = 1 Cup
2 oz. chopped nuts = 1/3 - 1/2 cup
8 oz. peanut butter = 1 Cup
12 oz. clear honey/golden syrup/molasses/black treacle = 1 Cup
11 oz. maple/corn syrup = 1 Cup
5-6 oz. jam/marmalade/jelly = 1/2 Cup
Copyright Cooking Solutions 2008
Kevin Wagner is Chef/Owner of Cooking Solutions, catering, teaching, and consulting services located in Bear River, Nova Scotia. Email: ChefKevin@cooking-solutions.com in response to this article or other questions.